What Is the Difference Between Psychology and Industrial Psychology?

What Is the Difference Between Psychology and Industrial Psychology?

                      The development of psychology as science began particularly in the nineteenth century but by the twentieth century. Its scope has been extended so much that independent branches of it emerged soon after. Psychological studies in the sphere of industry become important enough to be constituted as an independent branch called industrial psychology. Hence the development of industrial psychology should be said to begin in the twentieth century. Even before the twentieth century, certain researches were carried out, which could be useful in industrial psychology. For example, during the sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth centuries, much important research was carried out on dynamics, the most noticeable being the work of Galile and Marbey. In France in the nineteenth century, Marbey and Mooso carried out research on muscular work and the problem of fatigue. At the beginning of the twentieth century, Lotyko and Imbert did much research work on important methods in industrial psychology.

                            Industrial Psychology differs from general psychology. The major differences are; Industrial Psychology is a branch of  Practical Psychology while on the other hand, General Psychology is more theoretical. The scope of industrial psychology is more limited and in fact different. General psychology studies in general, Human behavior under all kinds of situations. Industrial psychology, on the other hand, studies human behavior only in industries and business situations. The point of view of general psychology is more theoretical but that of Industrial Psychology is chiefly practical.

                          Hawthorne effect plays an important role in industrial psychology. In the training world, The Hawthorne effect is a Chameleon.  and there are several definitions, most of them legitimate and all of them true to some aspect of the original experiments by Elton Mayo, in Chicago that produced the term. It has been described as the rewards you reap when you pay attention to people. The mere act of showing people that you're concerned about them usually spurs them to better job performance. That is the Hawthorne Effect.

                           Industrial psychology is very important for understanding the work environment and human performance. Human engineering or Engineering psychology or Human factor engineering is not possible without studying industrial psychology. This is because human engineering is the study of man in his work environment, his work methods, the machine design, i.e., the design of the equipment and tools used by him, and the effect of work environment conditions on his efficiency. Improving the work environment as advised by industrial psychologists leads to improvement in productivity and job satisfaction.

                            Studies of industrial psychology help not only in the personal problems and social problems of the workers but also in the situation of their economic problems. For this reason, economic factors also have played an important role in the evolution of industrial psychology. It has now been established that if an industrialist wants to progress rapidly he must pay great attention to the workers employed by him and create psychological conditions in which the morale and the efficiency of the workers can be maintained. With the introduction of sophisticated machinery, the importance of the workers was reduced for some time but scientists quickly pointed out that this was harmful. They emphasized the fact that industrial progress is impossible if the worker is neglected. As result efforts were made to provide industrial management with a scientific basis. F.W.Taylor, an American engineer, did pioneering work in this direction and the principle enunciated by him came to be known by the name of Taylorism. His action plan was given the name of a scientific organization.

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