Lubricants: Solid and liquid lubricants

Lubricants are those substance, which is use to reduce friction between two matting surfaces, like between piston and cylinder, between gears, etc. Thus the lubrication is the art of minimizing friction between different components of a machine and it is indispensable to the mechanization. It is also of vital importance for mechanical efficiency as well as the functioning of a machine.

           The lubricants is basically a petroleum products. The history of lubrication reveals that it was used in the old bullock-cart leading over the years to the automobile and the modern machine. The use of castor oil is mentioned in the epic of mahabharat as a lubricants for axles of chariots. Until petroleum made advent in the nineteenth century, the natural oils and fats were the chief ingredients used for lubrication and even at present, they are partial partial components of some of the important lubricants.

            The industrialised society of the present day requires many designed lubricants to satisfy the needs of the modern machinery. The viscosity (the frictional resistance within the substance which opposes any internal movement) is an essential property of a lubricating oil. Depending upon the source of crude, refining process, viscosity and various other factors affecting the qualities of a lubricant, more than 300 varieties of lubricants are put in the market and many of them are actually tailor-made to suit the requirements of different industries or of various machines.

Note:- The automobile industry is the largest consumer of lubricants.

           Lubrication is not only used for reducing friction between matting surfaces in a automobile, if we focus on the function and property of a lubricants it also absorb heat from the piston or to the cylinder and reduce the chances of melting piston or other damage.

Types of lubricants:-

  1. Solid lubricants:- Graphite, Mica, Talc, Soapstone.
  2. Liquid lubricants:- Animal oil, Mineral oils, Blended oils, Vegetable oils, Greases.

  • Solid Lubricants:-
Graphite
            The usual solid lubricants are graphite, mica, talc and soapstone. They are suitable for very great pressure and temperature with slow speed. The solid lubricants are slowly converted into powder form. In most of the cases, the particles of the solid lubricants prove harmful to the moving parts of the machinery and hence they are recommended only under limited circumstances. However some of them may be used in powder form in combination with oils and greases for special applications.

  • Liquid Lubricants:-
         The liquid lubricant are animal oils, mineral oils, vegetable oils, etc. Liquid lubricants, viscosity should be proper. If it is low, the film of liquid lubricant will not last and if it is high, it  will result in more frictional resistance. The viscosity increases with increase in temperature. Liquid lubricants should be clean in nature otherwise its property sometimes changes, its melting point should be low and its boiling point should be high.
         
Car oil
  • Benefits of lubricant:-
         Lubricant is used to prevent the contact between two surfaces or parts of a moving machine, the lubricants or lubricating material are inserted. It helps to facilitate easy motion of the moving parts and prevent the loss of energy and power due to friction by separating rubbing surfaces in relative motion and thereby to increase the efficiency of machine, It reduce wear and tear of parts and remove heat and to protect metal surfaces against corrosion. It increase the life of machine and reduce the chances of damage and abrasion of surfaces. 

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