Internal and External Combustion Engines

Internal and External Combustion Engines

Internal combustion engines

Internal combustion engines are largely used in transport vehicles like cars, buses, trucks, motorcycles, and so on. Here, fuel is burned, and the energy from the burning fuel is transferred to the pistons, which through gears, turn the wheels, thus moving the automobile.

        In petrol engines, the fuel-air mixture after being compressed is ignited by an electric spark, hence the name spark ignition (S.I.) engine, and the products of combustion do work on the piston, and through the crank-and-connecting-rod mechanism, power is transferred to the crankshaft.

         In diesel engines, only air is inducted by suction into the cylinder and compressed to high pressure. The fuel is injected in finely atomized form into the hot compressed air. The mixture gets self-ignited and the combustion products do work in the piston. These are called compression ignition (C.I.) engines.
I.C. Engine

       In simple words,  In Internal combustion engines, the air-fuel mixture is burned on the top of a piston that's by its called an internal combustion engine. The full process is that, When air-fuel mixture is coming from the carburetors and during suction, stroke is sucked inside the cylinder and after completing suction stroke, its compressed through the piston and piston is moved upwards (T.D.C.) and then its ignited by the spark plug and this stroke is called power stroke or combustion stroke after it, Burned gases is escaped from the cylinder in exhaust stoke.

       The thermodynamic analysis seeks to determine how much work we may expect from an engine and, through experiments, how efficiently the engine is performing. This is very important
      if the pollution from exhausts is to be minimized.   

Gas Turbine:

        The Gas turbine is another automotive power source, more commonly found in jet planes. There is an upsurge in the development of gas turbine plants in both electric power generation and ship propulsion. Air is compressed and energy added to it by burning fuel in a combustion chamber; this mixture, the product of combustion, expend through a turbine, doing work, which drives the electric generator or the ship. The analysis is similar to that of most power plants, and all these analyses have a common purpose, which is to consider how efficiently the chemical energy of a fuel is converted into mechanical energy. The process of converting energy is different, but the principle of energy conversion remains the same.

       An internal combustion engine is a heat engine where the combustion of fuel occurs with an oxidizer in a combustion chamber that is an integral part of a working fluid flow circuit. The term internal combustion engine usually refers to an engine in which combustion is intermittent, such as the more familiar four-stroke and two-stroke piston engines, along with variants, such as the six-stroke piston engine and the wankle rotary engine.

External combustion engines

       In external combustion engines, such as steam or Stirling engines, energy is delivered to a working fluid not consisting of, mixed with, or contaminated by combustion products. Working fluids can be air, hot water, pressurized water, or even liquid sodium, heated in a boiler.

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